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British anti-submarine whaler HMS Shera, escorting Allied convoy PQ, capsized possibly due to being top-heavy from heavy ice build-up and having low levels of fuel, although the weather was not particularly bad on this date; only 3 of those aboard survived the sinking. Merchant ship Sevaples fell out of Allied convoy PQ in poor weather. Merchant ship Sevaples and Soviet anti-submarine whaler Stefa, both of which fell out of Allied convoy PQ several days prior, found each other while at sea as Sevaples was being attacked by a German aircraft; Stefa shot down the German attacker. Adolf Hitler ordered the German naval and air forces to focus on hitting the Allied Arctic convoys.

Minesweeper HMS Sharpshooter, escorting Allied convoy QP-9, spotted German submarine U in a distance; she forced the submarine to surface by depth charges, rammed, and sank her; all 47 aboard U were killed. In the morning, German submarine U attacked Polish ship Tobruk of Allied convoy PQ with all torpedoes missing the target; the convoy escorts counterattacked with depth charges with similar dismal results.

Later in the day, German aircraft attacked the same convoy and sank British ship Empire Ranger and damaged Panamanian merchant ship Raceland which would eventually sink at hours. In the evening, German destroyers Z24, Z25, and Z26 departed Kirkenes in far northern Norway to hunt for ships of the PQ; 61 of Empire Ranger's survivors were rescued by German destroyer Z24 at hours, but many other survivors died in the freezing water. Shortly after, Z26 sank from the heavy damage. German submarine U probably struck one of the many mines that drifted from the German defensive barrage Bantos-A in the Barents Sea on this day.

German submarines U and U attacked British Induna of Allied convoy PQ at hours 41 survived the sinking, but 11 would die in the freezing water and 2 more would die in the hospital after being rescued ; U's attack failed, but U would sink Induna at hours; 38 were killed, 28 survived. At hours, U and U also attacked the convoy, stopping US transport Effingham; 2 were killed, 41 survived some of the survivors would die of exposure before being rescued ; the transport was scuttled by U at hours.

Surviving ships of Allied convoy PQ began to arrive at Murmansk, Russia after several attacks by German destroyers, submarines, and aircraft. Allied convoy QP-9 arrived at Reykjavik, Iceland without any losses. Allied convoy PQ found itself scattered shortly after dawn after a stormy night; 16 ships decided to return to Iceland while 8 ships sailed on for Russia.

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On the same day, Allied convoy QP departed Murmansk, Russia; it was consisted of 16 merchant ships, escorted by 5 destroyers, 3 corvettes, 1 minesweeper, and 2 trawlers; QP was almost immediately detected by German aircraft. German Ju 88 aircraft attacked Allied convoy QP, damaging ship Stone Street and sinking British ship Empire Cowper 19 were killed ; a heavy snow storm prevented the Germans from launching another air attack on the Arctic convoy.

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German submarines attacked Allied convoy QP miles north of Norway; U sank Russian merchant ship Kiev at hours 6 were killed, 62 survived , and U sank Panamanian ship El Occidente at hours 20 were killed, 21 survived. A German Fw Condor aircraft located Allied convoy QP at dawn; 20 Ju 88 aircraft attacked at hours, damaging the rudder of British freighter Harpalion she would be scuttled shortly after at the cost of 4 aircraft shot down. Allied convoy PQ, how down to 6 cargo ships and 2 tankers, was spotted by a German BV flying boat.

Later in the day, Fw Condor aircraft relieved the BV aircraft in keeping track of this convoy. They called in several air attacks, but none of them succeeded in sinking any ships. German submarine U fired 5 torpedoes at Allied convoy PQ and made 2 hits on the civilian commodore's ship Empire Howard miles north of Norway at hours; 29 were killed, 37 survived.

Many of victims were killed by depth charges meant to hit U Captain W. Lawrence of merchant ship Briarwood took over the civilian commodore role as his predecessor E. Rees was also killed. On the same day, returning convoy QP departed Kola Inlet in northern Russia; it was consisted of 13 merchant ships and was escorted by 6 destroyers, 4 corvettes, 1 trawler, and 4 minesweepers.

At hours, German destroyers Z7 Hermann Schoemann, Z24, and Z25 were sighted; the first round of the exchange of torpedoes by QP and the Allied escorts at hours all missed, but a shortly after British destroyer HMS Amazon was hit by gunfire and Russian freighter Tsiolkovsky was sunk by torpedo. Through hours, the German destroyed attempted to close in five more times, but they were not successful; they broke off after hours to pursue HMS Edinburgh in the direction of Murmansk, Russia.

Elsewhere, six German Ju 88 bombers attacked Allied convoy PQ west of Norway at hours without success, losing one aircraft in the process. As the target surfaced, she turned out to be Polish submarine Jastrzab, which suffered serious damage and 5 killed. The submarine was written off and scuttled shortly after the 35 survivors were taken off. Six He aircraft of German Luftwaffe unit I. At hours, another air attack came upon PQ, damaging the ship Cape Palliser while one Ju 88 aircraft was shot down; the arrival of Soviet Pe-3 aircraft drove off the rest of the German attackers.

A German Fw Condor aircraft discovered Trinidad off northern Russia at hours; at hours, two BV aircraft relieved the Fw aircraft in shadowing the cruiser; at hours, a wave of aircraft attacked and damaged the cruiser. Damaged by German aircraft two hours prior on the previous date, the abandon ship order was given by the captain of HMS Trinidad at hours; at hours, she was scuttled by a torpedo from HMS Matchless north of Russia. Allied convoy QP departed Murmansk, Russia; it was consisted of 17 merchant ships, escorted by 1 catapult aircraft merchantman, 6 destroyers, 4 trawlers, and 1 anti-aircraft vessel.

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The close escort force for Allied convoy PQ was reinforced by 4 corvettes, 2 submarines, and 1 anti-aircraft vessel. To the east, German Fw , Bv , and two Ju 88 aircraft successively shadowed QP starting at hours; British catapult aircraft merchantman Empire Moon launched her Hurricane fighter which shot down a Ju 88 aircraft but Flying Officer John Kendal would die when his parachute failed to open in time after he bailed out.

German submarine U attacked Allied convoy PQ miles northeast of Iceland at hours, sinking US merchant ship Syros two torpedo hits, detonating cargo of ammunition ; 9 were killed, 30 survived but 2 of the survivors would later die from exposure. He bombers of German Luftwaffe unit I.

The first attack arrived over PQ at hours, causing no damage. At hours, US freighter City of Joliet suffered a near miss. At hours, US freighter Alamar was hit by two bombs and was abandoned 20 minutes after with all aboard surviving. At hours, US ship Mormacsul was sunk by 1 bomb hit and 3 near misses; 3 were killed, 45 survived.

At hours, British catapult aircraft merchantman Empire Lawrence was sunk after receiving 5 hits; 25 were killed. In the afternoon, Russian ship Stari Bolshevik, British ship Empire Baffin, and Polish destroyer Garland were damaged by German attacks, followed by US ship City of Joliet being damaged after being struck by a crashing German dive bomber she would be abandoned at the end of the day. At hours, British merchant ship Empire Purcell was hit by 2 bombs and was abandoned.

Finally, at hours, British merchant ship Lowther Castle was hit by a torpedo from a I. Allied convoy PQ encountered heavy fog but managed to remain with each other by keeping eyes on fog buoys towed by the ship immediately in front of each trailing ship. To the east, PQ sailed in the opposite direction.

As PQ neared Murmansk, Russia, they were joined by Soviet destroyers Grozny, Sokrushitelny, and Kuibyshev at hours and then 6 British destroyers several hours later. At hours, the convoy broke into two groups, one sailing for Murmansk and another sailing for Arkhangelsk further east.

At hours, the Murmansk group came under attack by 18 German aircraft and the Arkhangelsk group by 15 German aircraft; no ships were sunk, and several aircraft on both sides were shot down, including one piloted by Double Hero of the Soviet Union Boris Safonov, killing him. Allied convoy PQ under Commodore J.

Dowding sailed from Hvalfjord, north of Reykjavik, Iceland, where it had assembled. One ship grounded on leaving harbour and another was damaged by ice in the Denmark Strait, so the convoy that set course for Arkhangelsk, Russia comprised 33 ships plus a tanker, escorted by six destroyers, two anti-aircraft ships, four corvettes, three minesweepers, four trawlers and two submarines; which it was hoped would discourage enemy attacks.

On the same date, convoy QP set sail from Arkhangelsk, Russia; it was consisted of 35 merchant ships and was escorted by 3 destroyers, 1 minesweeper, 4 corvettes, 1 anti-aircraft vessel, and 2 trawlers. The group was detected by the British and the Soviets, leading to the dispatching of 9 British and 7 Soviet submarines to intercept the German fleet; en route, Soviet submarines D-3 and M hit German naval mines and sank. Sailing in the opposite direction, QP broke up to two convoys, one of which ran into a minefield; several ships struck mines and sank British minesweeper HMS Niger were killed , freighter Hybert, freighter Heffron, freighter Massmar 17 were killed , and Soviet passenger ship Rodina several family members of Soviet diplomats were killed , and several others were damaged civilian commodore's ship American Robin, freighter Exterminator, and freighter John Randolph ; HMS Hussar was able to lead the survivors out of the minefield.

The scattered Allied convoy PQ was hunted down by German submarines and aircraft piecemeal throughout the day; British freighter Empire Byron by U at hours; 7 were killed, 63 survived , civilian commodore J. Dowding's ship River Afton by U at hours; 26 were killed, 38 survived , British ship Earlston by U at hours; all 52 aboard survived , Washington, Bolton Castle, Paulus Potter abandoned after Ju 88 attack; carrying 34 tanks, 15 aircraft, trucks, and 2, tons of general goods; 51 crew, 14 gunners, and 11 passengers took to boats , Pan Kraft, US ship Carlton by U at hours; 3 were killed, 42 survived , Fairfield City, Daniel Morgan by U at hours; 3 were killed, 51 survived , Peter Kerr, British fleet oiler Aldersdale fatally damaged by aircraft and abandoned , British rescue ship Zaafaran, and Honomu by U at hours; 13 were killed, 28 survived were all destroyed.

Meanwhile, Allied convoy QP was sailing in the opposite direction; British minesweeper HMS Niger, in escort, entered a British minefield due to navigation error, struck a mine, and sank 10 miles north of Iceland at hours, killing ; the 36 merchant ships of the convoy, following Niger's lead, also entered the minefield; 5 merchant ships would sink, 1 would sustain damage. German aircraft sank US ship Pan Atlantic.

In the same area, U sank British ship Hartlebury 8 were killed, 52 survived, but only 20 would remain alive before being rescued also of PQ Allied convoy PQ, after losing 24 of the 33 vessels, finally arrived in ports in northern Russia, delivering 64, tons of war goods; it was the worst convoy loss of the war, with some tanks, aircraft, 3, lorries and jeeps and , tons of materials lost at the hands of repeated German attacks.

Background

Joseph Stalin, suspicious of the western powers, believed that the British were unwilling to provide the Soviets with large amounts of goods and had made up the heavy losses. The floating wreck of Dutch merchant steamer Paulus Potter, damaged by German air attack 8 days prior, was discovered by German submarine U The ship was a member of Allied convoy PQ The second officer and two crew boarded the deserted ship and made an attempt to get her under way.

However, the flooding in the engine room was too deep and after taking food, cigarettes and other useful material including a heavy chest from the bridge, they returned to the submarine. The chest contained the confidential papers pertaining to the convoy codes and positions which the Dutch in their haste had forgotten to throw overboard. U then torpedoed and sank the Dutch merchant.

Allied convoy PQ arrived at Arkhangelsk, Russia. Several buildings and one seaplane were destroyed. En route, she would sink Soviet transport Krestyanin with one torpedo, killing 7. Soviet ocean tug Komsomelets, ocean tug Nord departed Chabarovo on the shore of Yugorsky peninsula in northern Russia, with barge P4 people on board, most of whom were penal construction workers , lighter Sh, and tug Komiles in tow. German submarine U spotted Soviet ocean tug Komsomelets and ocean tug Nord at hours east of the Yugorsky Peninsula in northern Russia; the two tugs were towing barge P4, lighter Sh, and tug Komiles.

U immediately shelled Komsomelets and fired a torpedo at P4, which missed. At hours, U shelled Komiles, forcing her crew to abandon ship.

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At , U shelled and sank Sh Shortly after, U fired another torpedo at P4; were killed most of whom were penal construction workers , 23 survived. German submarine U attempted to approach Belushya Guba in the Novaya Zemlya islands in northern Russia, but was spotted by Soviet motor boat Poliarny, minesweeper T, and minesweeper T, which drove off U Both groups of Allied warships were sailing for Iceland; some of them carried Soviet diplomats and survivors of various sunken or damaged merchant ships.

At hours, German minelayer Ulm, which had departed Narvik, Norway at hours earlier on the same day, was attacked by HMS Onslaught, HMS Marne, and HMS Martin; Marne was hit twice in the engagement 4 were killed , but the British ships were able to sink Ulm at hours; were killed, 54 survived 30 to 40 of whom were captured by the British. Allied convoy PQ departed Loch Ewe, Scotland, United Kingdom; it was supported by two tankers and one rescue ship and was escorted by two anti-aircraft vessels, three destroyers, four corvettes, and four trawlers.

A German aircraft detected Allied arctic convoy PQ late in the day, but it would lose track of the convoy due to heavy fog. German aircraft re-established contact with Allied convoy PQ at hours. Allied convoy QP departed Arkhangelsk, Russia with 15 merchant ships and two rescue ships under the civilian commodore J. Dowding; it was escorted by two anti-aircraft vessels, two destroyers, four corvettes, three minesweepers, and three trawlers under British Royal Navy Captain J.

Elsewhere, Allied convoy PQ sailed in the opposite direction; PQ would be subjected to repeated attacks all day. At hours, 6 Ju 88 aircraft attacked without success. German submarine U attacked Allied convoy PQ 20 miles south of Spitzbergen, Svalbard, Norway; destroyer HMS Impulsive detected U's approach, but she failed to deter the attack; U fatally damaged British tanker Atheltemplar at hours 3 were killed, 58 survived but 16 would die of wounds later; the floating burning wreck would be sunk by U at hours.

At hours, about 20 German He torpedo bombers of I. Shortly after, 12 Ju 88 attacked, again losing 11 aircraft without scoring any hits. A third round of 25 aircraft He of I. Finally, at hours, the final wave of 20 German aircraft attacked, scoring no hits and losing one aircraft. Later in the day, some of the warships escorting PQ transferred to convoy sailing in the opposite direction QP To the east, convoy PQ arrived at Arkhangelsk, Russia.

Maud broke apart and sank while under tow by HMS Ashanti miles north of Iceland; 77 were killed, 35 survived. US freighter Richard H. US freighter John H. Russian freighter Dekabrist, also of Operation FB, was attacked by German Ju 88 aircraft, suffering fatal damage she would sink shortly after east of Spitzbergen, Norway.

British freighter Chulmleigh of Operation FB, stuck on a reef off Norway, was abandoned by her crew at hours; at hours, German submarine U found Chulmleigh and destroyed her with gunfire. German destroyer Z27 sank Soviet ship Donbass; 49 were kiled, 16 survived and captured by the Germans. It was consisted of 28 freighters and was escorted by one anti-aircraft vessel, five minesweepers, four corvettes, and two destroyers.

Soviet destroyer Sokrushitelny was damaged and Soviet destroyer Baku capsized in very heavy weather while escorting Allied convoy QP While escorting Allied convoy QP, Soviet destroyer Sokrushitelny foundered after sustaining damage in heavy weather. German submarine U sank British freighter Goolistan at hours; shortly after, U sank Russian merchant ship Kuznets Lesov; all 82 people aboard the two ships were killed. Allied convoy JWA departed Liverpool, England, United Kingdom; it was consisted of 16 freighters and was escorted by seven destroyers and four smaller warships.

Convoy JWB departed from Liverpool, England, United Kingdom for Murmansk, Russia; it was consisted of 14 freighters and was escorted by six destroyers, two corvettes, one minesweeper, and two trawlers under the command of Captain Robert Sherbrooke; British cruisers of Force R covered the convoy from a distance. Allied convoy JWB was hit by a major storm about half way between Bear Island and Jan Mayen island north of Norway; five ships lost contact with the convoy.

Allied convoy RA departed the Kola Inlet near Murmansk, Russia; it was consisted of 30 freighters and was escorted by 31 warships. German submarine U sank freighter Executive 9 were killed, 51 survived and damaged freighter Richard Bland of Allied convoy RA at hours; shortly after, 12 German He aircraft attacked the convoy, but none of them were able to break through the escort screen.

Gorgas which had been sunk by German submarine U The destroyer returned to the convoy and sighted German submarine U which dived but was forced to the surface by depth charges. Harvester then rammed the submarine and the two vessels became locked for a while. The submarine was written off and scuttled shortly after the 35 survivors were taken off. Six He aircraft of German Luftwaffe unit I.

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At hours, another air attack came upon PQ, damaging the ship Cape Palliser while one Ju 88 aircraft was shot down; the arrival of Soviet Pe-3 aircraft drove off the rest of the German attackers. A German Fw Condor aircraft discovered Trinidad off northern Russia at hours; at hours, two BV aircraft relieved the Fw aircraft in shadowing the cruiser; at hours, a wave of aircraft attacked and damaged the cruiser.

Damaged by German aircraft two hours prior on the previous date, the abandon ship order was given by the captain of HMS Trinidad at hours; at hours, she was scuttled by a torpedo from HMS Matchless north of Russia. Allied convoy QP departed Murmansk, Russia; it was consisted of 17 merchant ships, escorted by 1 catapult aircraft merchantman, 6 destroyers, 4 trawlers, and 1 anti-aircraft vessel.

The close escort force for Allied convoy PQ was reinforced by 4 corvettes, 2 submarines, and 1 anti-aircraft vessel. To the east, German Fw , Bv , and two Ju 88 aircraft successively shadowed QP starting at hours; British catapult aircraft merchantman Empire Moon launched her Hurricane fighter which shot down a Ju 88 aircraft but Flying Officer John Kendal would die when his parachute failed to open in time after he bailed out. German submarine U attacked Allied convoy PQ miles northeast of Iceland at hours, sinking US merchant ship Syros two torpedo hits, detonating cargo of ammunition ; 9 were killed, 30 survived but 2 of the survivors would later die from exposure.

He bombers of German Luftwaffe unit I. The first attack arrived over PQ at hours, causing no damage. At hours, US freighter City of Joliet suffered a near miss. At hours, US freighter Alamar was hit by two bombs and was abandoned 20 minutes after with all aboard surviving. At hours, US ship Mormacsul was sunk by 1 bomb hit and 3 near misses; 3 were killed, 45 survived.

At hours, British catapult aircraft merchantman Empire Lawrence was sunk after receiving 5 hits; 25 were killed. In the afternoon, Russian ship Stari Bolshevik, British ship Empire Baffin, and Polish destroyer Garland were damaged by German attacks, followed by US ship City of Joliet being damaged after being struck by a crashing German dive bomber she would be abandoned at the end of the day. At hours, British merchant ship Empire Purcell was hit by 2 bombs and was abandoned. Finally, at hours, British merchant ship Lowther Castle was hit by a torpedo from a I. Allied convoy PQ encountered heavy fog but managed to remain with each other by keeping eyes on fog buoys towed by the ship immediately in front of each trailing ship.

To the east, PQ sailed in the opposite direction. As PQ neared Murmansk, Russia, they were joined by Soviet destroyers Grozny, Sokrushitelny, and Kuibyshev at hours and then 6 British destroyers several hours later. At hours, the convoy broke into two groups, one sailing for Murmansk and another sailing for Arkhangelsk further east. At hours, the Murmansk group came under attack by 18 German aircraft and the Arkhangelsk group by 15 German aircraft; no ships were sunk, and several aircraft on both sides were shot down, including one piloted by Double Hero of the Soviet Union Boris Safonov, killing him.

Allied convoy PQ under Commodore J. Dowding sailed from Hvalfjord, north of Reykjavik, Iceland, where it had assembled. One ship grounded on leaving harbour and another was damaged by ice in the Denmark Strait, so the convoy that set course for Arkhangelsk, Russia comprised 33 ships plus a tanker, escorted by six destroyers, two anti-aircraft ships, four corvettes, three minesweepers, four trawlers and two submarines; which it was hoped would discourage enemy attacks.

On the same date, convoy QP set sail from Arkhangelsk, Russia; it was consisted of 35 merchant ships and was escorted by 3 destroyers, 1 minesweeper, 4 corvettes, 1 anti-aircraft vessel, and 2 trawlers. The group was detected by the British and the Soviets, leading to the dispatching of 9 British and 7 Soviet submarines to intercept the German fleet; en route, Soviet submarines D-3 and M hit German naval mines and sank.

Sailing in the opposite direction, QP broke up to two convoys, one of which ran into a minefield; several ships struck mines and sank British minesweeper HMS Niger were killed , freighter Hybert, freighter Heffron, freighter Massmar 17 were killed , and Soviet passenger ship Rodina several family members of Soviet diplomats were killed , and several others were damaged civilian commodore's ship American Robin, freighter Exterminator, and freighter John Randolph ; HMS Hussar was able to lead the survivors out of the minefield.

The scattered Allied convoy PQ was hunted down by German submarines and aircraft piecemeal throughout the day; British freighter Empire Byron by U at hours; 7 were killed, 63 survived , civilian commodore J. Dowding's ship River Afton by U at hours; 26 were killed, 38 survived , British ship Earlston by U at hours; all 52 aboard survived , Washington, Bolton Castle, Paulus Potter abandoned after Ju 88 attack; carrying 34 tanks, 15 aircraft, trucks, and 2, tons of general goods; 51 crew, 14 gunners, and 11 passengers took to boats , Pan Kraft, US ship Carlton by U at hours; 3 were killed, 42 survived , Fairfield City, Daniel Morgan by U at hours; 3 were killed, 51 survived , Peter Kerr, British fleet oiler Aldersdale fatally damaged by aircraft and abandoned , British rescue ship Zaafaran, and Honomu by U at hours; 13 were killed, 28 survived were all destroyed.

Meanwhile, Allied convoy QP was sailing in the opposite direction; British minesweeper HMS Niger, in escort, entered a British minefield due to navigation error, struck a mine, and sank 10 miles north of Iceland at hours, killing ; the 36 merchant ships of the convoy, following Niger's lead, also entered the minefield; 5 merchant ships would sink, 1 would sustain damage. German aircraft sank US ship Pan Atlantic. In the same area, U sank British ship Hartlebury 8 were killed, 52 survived, but only 20 would remain alive before being rescued also of PQ Allied convoy PQ, after losing 24 of the 33 vessels, finally arrived in ports in northern Russia, delivering 64, tons of war goods; it was the worst convoy loss of the war, with some tanks, aircraft, 3, lorries and jeeps and , tons of materials lost at the hands of repeated German attacks.

Joseph Stalin, suspicious of the western powers, believed that the British were unwilling to provide the Soviets with large amounts of goods and had made up the heavy losses. The floating wreck of Dutch merchant steamer Paulus Potter, damaged by German air attack 8 days prior, was discovered by German submarine U The ship was a member of Allied convoy PQ The second officer and two crew boarded the deserted ship and made an attempt to get her under way.

However, the flooding in the engine room was too deep and after taking food, cigarettes and other useful material including a heavy chest from the bridge, they returned to the submarine. The chest contained the confidential papers pertaining to the convoy codes and positions which the Dutch in their haste had forgotten to throw overboard.

U then torpedoed and sank the Dutch merchant. Allied convoy PQ arrived at Arkhangelsk, Russia. Several buildings and one seaplane were destroyed. En route, she would sink Soviet transport Krestyanin with one torpedo, killing 7. Soviet ocean tug Komsomelets, ocean tug Nord departed Chabarovo on the shore of Yugorsky peninsula in northern Russia, with barge P4 people on board, most of whom were penal construction workers , lighter Sh, and tug Komiles in tow.

German submarine U spotted Soviet ocean tug Komsomelets and ocean tug Nord at hours east of the Yugorsky Peninsula in northern Russia; the two tugs were towing barge P4, lighter Sh, and tug Komiles. U immediately shelled Komsomelets and fired a torpedo at P4, which missed. At hours, U shelled Komiles, forcing her crew to abandon ship. At , U shelled and sank Sh Shortly after, U fired another torpedo at P4; were killed most of whom were penal construction workers , 23 survived.

German submarine U attempted to approach Belushya Guba in the Novaya Zemlya islands in northern Russia, but was spotted by Soviet motor boat Poliarny, minesweeper T, and minesweeper T, which drove off U Both groups of Allied warships were sailing for Iceland; some of them carried Soviet diplomats and survivors of various sunken or damaged merchant ships. At hours, German minelayer Ulm, which had departed Narvik, Norway at hours earlier on the same day, was attacked by HMS Onslaught, HMS Marne, and HMS Martin; Marne was hit twice in the engagement 4 were killed , but the British ships were able to sink Ulm at hours; were killed, 54 survived 30 to 40 of whom were captured by the British.

Allied convoy PQ departed Loch Ewe, Scotland, United Kingdom; it was supported by two tankers and one rescue ship and was escorted by two anti-aircraft vessels, three destroyers, four corvettes, and four trawlers. A German aircraft detected Allied arctic convoy PQ late in the day, but it would lose track of the convoy due to heavy fog. German aircraft re-established contact with Allied convoy PQ at hours.

Allied convoy QP departed Arkhangelsk, Russia with 15 merchant ships and two rescue ships under the civilian commodore J. Dowding; it was escorted by two anti-aircraft vessels, two destroyers, four corvettes, three minesweepers, and three trawlers under British Royal Navy Captain J. Elsewhere, Allied convoy PQ sailed in the opposite direction; PQ would be subjected to repeated attacks all day. At hours, 6 Ju 88 aircraft attacked without success. German submarine U attacked Allied convoy PQ 20 miles south of Spitzbergen, Svalbard, Norway; destroyer HMS Impulsive detected U's approach, but she failed to deter the attack; U fatally damaged British tanker Atheltemplar at hours 3 were killed, 58 survived but 16 would die of wounds later; the floating burning wreck would be sunk by U at hours.

At hours, about 20 German He torpedo bombers of I. Shortly after, 12 Ju 88 attacked, again losing 11 aircraft without scoring any hits. A third round of 25 aircraft He of I. Finally, at hours, the final wave of 20 German aircraft attacked, scoring no hits and losing one aircraft. Later in the day, some of the warships escorting PQ transferred to convoy sailing in the opposite direction QP To the east, convoy PQ arrived at Arkhangelsk, Russia.

Maud broke apart and sank while under tow by HMS Ashanti miles north of Iceland; 77 were killed, 35 survived. US freighter Richard H. US freighter John H.


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Russian freighter Dekabrist, also of Operation FB, was attacked by German Ju 88 aircraft, suffering fatal damage she would sink shortly after east of Spitzbergen, Norway. British freighter Chulmleigh of Operation FB, stuck on a reef off Norway, was abandoned by her crew at hours; at hours, German submarine U found Chulmleigh and destroyed her with gunfire. German destroyer Z27 sank Soviet ship Donbass; 49 were kiled, 16 survived and captured by the Germans.

It was consisted of 28 freighters and was escorted by one anti-aircraft vessel, five minesweepers, four corvettes, and two destroyers. Soviet destroyer Sokrushitelny was damaged and Soviet destroyer Baku capsized in very heavy weather while escorting Allied convoy QP While escorting Allied convoy QP, Soviet destroyer Sokrushitelny foundered after sustaining damage in heavy weather.

German submarine U sank British freighter Goolistan at hours; shortly after, U sank Russian merchant ship Kuznets Lesov; all 82 people aboard the two ships were killed. Allied convoy JWA departed Liverpool, England, United Kingdom; it was consisted of 16 freighters and was escorted by seven destroyers and four smaller warships.

Convoy JWB departed from Liverpool, England, United Kingdom for Murmansk, Russia; it was consisted of 14 freighters and was escorted by six destroyers, two corvettes, one minesweeper, and two trawlers under the command of Captain Robert Sherbrooke; British cruisers of Force R covered the convoy from a distance. Allied convoy JWB was hit by a major storm about half way between Bear Island and Jan Mayen island north of Norway; five ships lost contact with the convoy. Allied convoy RA departed the Kola Inlet near Murmansk, Russia; it was consisted of 30 freighters and was escorted by 31 warships.

German submarine U sank freighter Executive 9 were killed, 51 survived and damaged freighter Richard Bland of Allied convoy RA at hours; shortly after, 12 German He aircraft attacked the convoy, but none of them were able to break through the escort screen. Gorgas which had been sunk by German submarine U The destroyer returned to the convoy and sighted German submarine U which dived but was forced to the surface by depth charges. Harvester then rammed the submarine and the two vessels became locked for a while.

The badly damaged British destroyer could not make way and was soon hit by two torpedoes from German submarine U The ship sank quickly and seven officers, crew and 39 survivors were lost. The French corvette then returned to the scene and sank U with depth charges and ramming. She then picked up four crewmen from U, 20 from U plus 60 from the Harvester, including 12 from the American Liberty ship. Brandt County was carrying tons of general cargo, a large amount of carbide and tons of ammunition. She was hit by one torpedo, which ignited her load of carbide.

Of the five men on the bridge, three managed to get to the lifeboat and the other two died. Three of the four men in the engine room died and the fourth was unable to stop the engine but managed to get on deck. Among the dead were also eight military passengers. The 24 survivors abandoned ship in one lifeboat and when it was about metres away the flames reached the cargo of explosives. The Brant County disappeared in a huge explosion, which sent pieces of metal and other debris in the air.

The survivors were picked up after 30 minutes by the British steam merchant Stuart Prince. One of them was badly burned and died shortly thereafter. At hours German submarine U joined in the attack and reported a ship sunk, in actual fact one torpedo hit the 5,ton British cargo ship Jamaica Producer the ship was able to continue and get to port where she was repaired and returned to service in May German submarine U was ordered to go to Hopen island, Norway to pick up stranded Russian sailors from Russian freighter Dekabrist which was sunk many months prior.

German submarine U arrived at Hopen island, Norway and picked up four survivors of Russian freighter Dekabrist, including the skipper Beliaev. German submarine U arrived at Narvik, Norway and dropped off four survivors of Russian freighter Dekabrist. German submarine U shelled the Soviet wireless telegraph station at Pravdy in northern Russia. German submarine U shelled the Soviet wireless telegraph station at Blagopoluchiya in northern Russia. German submarine U arrived at Harstad, Norway and dropped off two survivors of Russian freighter Dekabrist. Allied convoy JWA departed Liverpool, England, United Kingdom; it was consisted of 20 freighters and was escorted by 2 cruisers and 9 destroyers.

Curtin of Allied convoy JWA; 3 were killed, 68 survived. U damaged British freighter Fort Bellingham convoy civilian commodore's ship , which was later sunk by U; 36 were killed, 35 survived. It was consisted of 42 merchant ships, was supported by 2 tankers and 1 rescue ship, and was escorted by 4 corvettes and later reinforced with destroyers and frigates. The destroyer exploded and sank within minutes. Whinney, DSC, RN were quickly on the scene to pick up survivors, but only 16 survivors could be recovered from the freezing waters. The commander, ten officers and ratings lost their lives.

In the afternoon, German submarine U attacked convoy JW near the mouth of the Kola Inlet and reported a destroyer and a Liberty sunk and another Liberty ship damaged. The Thomas Donaldson, carrying 7, tons of general cargo, including 6, tons of ammunition, foodstuffs and locomotives and tenders as deck cargo was the twentieth ship as convoy formed into one column to enter Kola Inlet and was hit at hours on the starboard side by one torpedo about 20 miles from the mouth of Kola Inlet.

The torpedo struck the engine room, killed one officer and two crewmen on watch below and destroyed the engines. Due to her dangerous cargo the master ordered the crew of eight officers, 34 crewmen and 27 armed guards to abandon ship after 10 minutes. One man died after being rescued.