Most of the discussion of this proposal has taken place within the context of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, which is not a fundamental theory. It has been argued that considerations of how the wave functions of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics arise from a quantum field theory undermines the idea that wave functions are relevantly like fields on configuration space, and also the idea that configuration spaces can be thought of as more fundamental than ordinary spacetime Myrvold Taking a wave function to be a multi-field, on the other hand, involves accepting nonseparability.
Another difference between taking wave-functions as multi-fields on ordinary space and taking them to be fields on a high-dimensional space is that, on the multi-field view, there is no question about the relation of ordinary three-dimensional space to some more fundamental space. It has been argued that, on the de Broglie-Bohm pilot wave theory and related pilot wave theories, the quantum state plays a role more similar to that of a law in classical mechanics; its role is to provide dynamics for the Bohmian corpuscles, which, according to the theory, compose ordinary objects.
The conception is extended to interpretations of collapse theories by Allori et al. Primitive ontology is to be distinguished from other ontology, such as the quantum state, that is introduced into the theory to account for the behavior of the primitive ontology. The distinction is meant to be a guide as to how to conceive of the nonprimitive ontology of the theory. Quantum mechanics has not only given rise to interpretational conundrums; it has given rise to new concepts in computing and in information theory.
Quantum information theory is the study of the possibilities for information processing and transmission opened up by quantum theory. Another area of active research in the foundations of quantum mechanics is the attempt to gain deeper insight into the structure of the theory, and the ways in which it differs from both classical physics and other theories that one might construct, by characterizing the structure of the theory in terms of very general principles, often with an information-theoretic flavour.
This project has its roots in early work of Mackey , , Ludwig , and Piron aiming to characterize quantum mechanics in operational terms. This has led to the development of a framework of generalized probabilistic model. It also has connections with the investigations into quantum logic initiated by Birkhoff and von Neumann see the entry quantum logic and probability theory for an overview.
Interest in the project of deriving quantum theory from axioms with clear operational content was revived by the work of Hardy , Other Internet Resources. See Chiribella and Spekkens for a snapshot of the state of the art of this endeavour. Introduction 2. Quantum theory 2. Entanglement, nonlocality, and nonseparability 4. The measurement problem 4. Ontological Issues 5. Quantum computing and quantum information theory 7.
Bibliography Albert, David Z. Cushing, A. Goldstein eds. Placzek and J. Butterfield eds.
Bell, J. Reprinted in Bell 1— Reprinted in Bell — Bell, Mary and Shan Gao eds. Brown, Harvey R.
Spekkens eds. Dirac, P. Cohen, M. Horne and J. Stachel eds. English translation in Einstein Schilpp ed. Translation of Einstein Barrett and Peter Byrne eds. Fleming, Gordon N. Fuchs, Christopher A. Harrigan, Nicholas and Robert W. Lewis, Peter J. Wheeler and W. Zurek eds. Ludwig, G. Mackey, George W. Myrvold, Wayne C. Ney, Alyssa and David Z. Albert eds.
Pusey, Matthew F. Saunders, Simon, Saunders, J. Barrett, A. Kent, and D. Wallace eds. Spekkens, Robert W. Tipler, Frank J. Hull, M. Forbes and R. Burian eds. Beyer trans. Academic Tools How to cite this entry. Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPapers , with links to its database. Other Internet Resources Feynman, R. These are introductory lectures aimed at physics undergraduates.
Book A Critique Of Recent Quantum Theories
PhET Interactive Simulations project , University of Colorado Boulder; these pages contain useful simulations of classic quantum experiments. Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. Mirror Sites View this site from another server:. How to cite this entry.
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Niels Bohr's Quantum Mechanics and Philosophy of Physics
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Weinberg would prefer a reality with one history. But apart from that preference, the realist approach does not explain why measurement results observe the rules of quantum probabilities. If everything actually does happen in the various histories, there seems to be no reason why the quantum rules for probability would apply inside any one stream. So Weinberg thinks there might be something beyond quantum mechanics, a deeper theory that introduces probabilities at a fundamental level, rather than requiring a human to make measurements to get the probabilities to show up.
And there is a line of research attempting to generalize quantum mechanics along those lines. But so far a compelling theory that succeeds in generalizing quantum mechanics does not exist. Or perhaps not. It may be that a paper from a graduate student tomorrow morning will lay it out. Newtonian gravity, Weinberg noted, was itself regarded as unacceptable by many scientists of his era. Newtonian gravity was action at a distance, with no tangible pushing or pulling guiding the planets in their orbits.
We have to go with it and see where it takes us — and see whether or not perhaps we have to change our philosophical standards.